How Did Fishing Originate And Where?

Fishing is a widespread job occupation and means of survival for many. It is also one of the most popular recreational activities. Many people wonder how fishing originated and what the purpose behind it was. Fishing is basically an activity that involves hunting for fish and trying to catch them. It is a native practice used by many ancient tribes worldwide. Each tribe had its own techniques and traditions regarding this activity and different motives. Nowadays, fishing is less of a traditional practice and more of a sport. If you live in a place near the sea, fishing would be your prime source of outdoor entertainment. Not only do fishermen make a living out of this sport, but so do fishing tournament organizers.

The question that comes to the mind of many is that of the origins of fishing. The advent of fishing can be traced back to the Mesolithic period which dates about 10,000 years back. Archaeological findings, discarded fish bones and cave paintings were evidence enough to conclude that sea food was one of the primary means of survival and was consumed in large quantities during that era. Some speculate that fishing may even date back to before the development of modern humans, but this has not been confirmed yet. The River Nile was the center of fishing activity. There were numerous methods used for fishing in the early times which are conspicuously illustrated in tomb scenes and drawings discovered within Egyptian tombs. By the start of the 12th dynasty, metal hooks with bards were being used to catch fish. The most important fish at the time were the Nile perch, eels and catfish. Some depictions that point towards fishing being used as a pastime were also found.

Ancient Greek culture does not contain many illustrations of fishing scenes, which implies that fishing occupied a low social status during that time. There are pictures of Roman fishing from mosaics which represent fishing with rods, lines and nets, from boats. The Greek-Roman sea God Neptune is also depicted holding a fishing spear. Neptune has also been labeled as the God of fishing.

References to fishing can also be found in some ancient literature. Even the Bible contains some references to this ancient activity. An instance of this is Job 41:7 “Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? Or his head with fish spears?” This book is available to date and contains the various techniques used for fishing. He has described fishing with a “motionless net” in a very intriguing manner. He says that the fishers use nets of buoyant flax and move in a circle while hitting the sea surface with their oars. Hence, the origins of fishing are appalling for many. The significance of fishing, undoubtedly, remains to date, with many of the ancient methods and techniques still in place.

Source by Greg Mitchell

New Baby Survival Kit-What you really need to buy before baby gets here


As a new parent you want the best products and spare no amount of money. Friends and family suggest all kinds of “must have” items for your new baby. What’s hot and what’s not? By the time your baby is ready to arrive it can be confusing to a new parent on what items you really need to raise a baby. It’s real simple and doesn’t cost you much in the beginning to raise a newborn. Babies do three things when they are born. Eat, sleep and poop.

They need a place to sleep, feel warm and safe and have plenty to eat. With a newborn you don’t have to rush out and buy a crib just yet. You’re going to be waking up plenty in the middle of the night for feedings and wet diapers. To make it easy on mom and dad a must have item is a co-sleeper baby bed like The Snuggle Nest. This bed fits right in-between mom and dad. It gives new parents peace of mind to have your little one sleeping right next to you safely. A great added feature is a little light that you can turn on in the middle of the night to check on your baby. This avoid having to turn on bright lights at night to see. The co-sleeper folds easy and can be taken with you where ever you go.

To make feedings easy for you and baby there is formula that is premixed ready to go. Similac and Enfamil make 2oz ready to use bottles. These are great for night feedings! You just pop the cap off and replace with a nipple. I had a box sitting next to my bed at night. You don’t need to refrigerate to store, only after opening. When your baby moves up in formula amounts you can then step up to the larger premixed bottles. The price difference from powder to premix is only a few dollars more. Well worth the cost!

Have plenty of baby bottles on hand. I found the regular plastic BPA free bottles work just as well as the fancy curved or drop-ins. The nipple shape and style is what matters most at this age. Make sure to use a smaller nipple hole when you first start bottle feeding your baby. (Size 1) This keeps your baby from eating too much and choking. Your baby will tell you which bottle he/she likes best and just stick with that bottle. Dishwasher safe is best for properly sterilizing your bottles.

Blankets are a must have as well. Good large blankets to wrap your baby in at night. Babies love to feel warm, safe and secure. Learn how to wrap your baby tightly (the hospital will teach you this) and place your baby on his/her back at night. Make sure it’s not too tight but snug. This feels most like the womb to them. Newborn babies need to keep there body heat close to them. Always keep on a snug cap and booties as well. Heat escapes from the top of babies head and feet.

Diapers, of course is another must have, but which ones? You want to keep your baby dry. Keeping baby dry stops most diaper rashes before they start. I found Pampers Swaddlers to be the best. They have a wet indicator on the diaper. There’s a yellow strip on the front of the diaper that turns blue when your baby is wet. No guessing games here. These diapers are great! Don’t settle for less expensive diapers. Leaks can be messy and awful for you and baby. Especially at 3am! Swaddlers are well worth the money.

Mylicon is the final and BEST item to buy for baby. This is a gas relief product that really helps gassy babies. You baby will have gas after every feeding. Sometimes burping is not enough. When your baby is crying and he’s not hungry, wet or sleepy it’s probably gas. Give him the recommended dose (located on box) and your baby will feel better within minutes.

I have listed above some of the “must have” products I’ve used with my newborn son. Raising a baby takes time, patience and lots of love.

Staying in a Loveless Marriage – Tips and Advice That May Help

I get a lot of emails from folks who describe a “loveless marriage” and ask for ways to stay in or cope with it. I find that people have different definitions and perceptions of this type of marriage and of what it lacks. By “loveless” some people actually mean “sexless,” but others mean that this type of marriage lacks intimacy and closeness. There may well be intercourse or sex, but the emotional closeness that typically exists between married couples is just not there for whatever reason on the part of at least one of the parties. Typically, one or both are just “going through the motions” without much emotion behind it.

Sometimes people chose to stay in a loveless marriage because they have children and they don’t want to put the children through a divorce. Other times, financial burdens or limitations keep you from breaking away. Still other times, you are firm in your commitment to your marriage. You believe that marriage is forever and you, quite admirably, don’t want to take the easy way out. There are ways to cope with these types of marriages, and I’ll offer some tips toward that end. But, I also firmly believe that you don’t have to live this way. You can turn a marriage without love completely around with a little bit of effort, openness, and patience. I’ll discuss this more in the following article.

Don’t Define Your Marriage Based On Others’ Expectations: First off, I hate the phrase “loveless marriage.” Because this almost implies that there never was any love between the spouses or that there never will be. This is very limiting and this perception doesn’t do anything to help your cause. It’s far more favorable to accept that your marriage is going through a rough patch right now which is manifesting itself as a lack of intimacy. But, that doesn’t mean that you can’t manufacture or reignite these feelings. Don’t allow yourself to make these types of assumptions because if you do, this becomes your road map and this is a very faulty one that won’t lead you anywhere that you really want to go.

Also, don’t worry so much about what others think or expect. Your marriage isn’t really anyone’s business but your own, but the media would have us think that if we aren’t all over each other all of the time, there is something wrong with us. With that said, most married couples do have a bond and a commitment that binds them which is based on shared feelings of intimacy, closeness, and understanding. If you lack any of these components, this doesn’t mean that there is something wrong with your or that you can’t get them back. It just means that you have some work to do. Vow to close out the outside world and not to worry about other’s expectations of what should make you happy in your marriage. Only you and your spouse can decide that. Don’t let others make you feel that you are lacking or that you should do something else to please anyone but yourself. Define what you and your spouse need to be happy and to feel connected and concentrate only on that.

Why You (And Your Family) Deserve So Much More Than A Loveless Marriage: Many people stay in this type of marriage because they think that it’s the best thing for the kids or because they “don’t want to hurt anyone.” But, if you think that your children or your spouse don’t catch onto the fact that something is lacking, you’re probably mistaken. Children are very perceptive, and parents who aren’t affectionate or closely bonded are modeling the type of marriage that your children may well grow up and have. Counselors are very fond of saying that the greatest gift that you can give your child (and to yourself) are two parents who are happy and who love each other. This sounds cliche, but I believe it to be completely accurate.

You and your spouse are modeling how to live, interact, and connect for your children. They will grow up and know no other way than what you are showing them. They may well sense or even witness that your household isn’t like others, but it’s more likely than not that they’ll live (at least on some levels) similarly to you. At the very least, they will have been affected by growing up in a home that lacks laughter and love.

I’m not telling you this to make you feel guilty or to insinuate that you aren’t doing the best that you can for your children. I’m telling you this hoping that you can see that although your intentions are very honorable and unselfish, they may not be as healthy for your children as you had hoped.

Turning Around A Loveless Marriage: If you’ve found this article, it’s highly likely that you and your spouse have gotten into the habit of going through the motions and forgoing intimacy. This is a habit that can be broken, just like any other. But, one of you must make the first move. Since you care enough to research this topic, let that person be you. You may feel quite vulnerable and hesitant to be the one to initiate this, but it’s better than just hoping that things will get better without being proactive.

You really have two options here. You can be honest with your spouse, sit them down, and explain that you are troubled by the lack of intimacy in your marriage and want to work with them to change things. Try to make this sound like something that is going to be mutually beneficial and fun, not something that is going to require a lot of “work.” You’re really trying to get to a place where the two of you can have fun and be upbeat together so try to keep the conversation on this same keel.

The other option that you have is to just begin by changing your own actions. Maybe you don’t want to lay your cards on the table yet, but you’d like to start to making some changes with what you can control – yourself. So, you’ll be the one to start initiating more intimate gestures. Start small at first. Shoot for loving glances, spontaneous laughter, or the brush of a hand or shoulder. Don’t put too much pressure on yourself and move slowly. But, over time, your goal is to slowly improve things so that physical touch and emotional closeness don’t feel so foreign and awkward.

Finding Your Own Happiness: While your making these small changes in your marriage, it’s important to look at yourself and your own fulfillment and happiness. In short, you can’t give what you do not have. You can not be lighthearted and playful with your partner if you’re depressed or not fulfilled within your own heart. I often find that if people focus on what makes them happy as an individual (without judging if this is right or wrong), then becoming happy as a couple falls into place more easily. You’re more open to receiving pleasure and give and take because you’ve learned to take responsibility for and to participate in your own happiness. In other words, you don’t need for your spouse to provide this for you, but you want them to share this with you and you set it up to make this so.

Source by Leslie Cane

Water Based Lubricant: Get More Than HIV Protection

The role of water based lubricant are very important, it make the event run so smooth. When a woman is ready to make, she will be secrete natural lubricant. However, sometimes due to psychological reasons or age, the amount of lubricant produced is not sufficient. Vagina felt dry and consequently make event painful. Therefore, the role of lubrication made important enough.

Lubricants or natural fluid lubricant (originating from the liquid lubrication out when a woman has inflamed) and other synthetic lubricant believed to smooth the way for making love with your partner. Synthetic lubricants are very useful for men and women who are having sex.

Men recommended use oil based lubricant with oil basic materials, water, or Silicon. Women suggested encourage using water based lubricant. Water can avoid vagina from infection. Please do not use oil and liquid lubricants excessively and even better if these fluid lubricants only thin lubricated.

However, in line with the increasing science and technology, liquid lubricant function grow. Now it has new function that can be important considered, when people have a risk from different type sexually virus, as we already know of them: syphilis, Sexual diseases (STD), and even more danger, that is AIDS and another sexually diseases.

This lubricant cannot replace function of condoms for HIV protection. Condom still believed as the most powerful deterrent from HIV. With spread of some substance oil that found in lubricants have been proven in against the virus.

This strengthened by several researches on sexual base from the University of Valveston, Texas, United States and AIDS Research and Human Retrovirus edition of July 20 2001. It has been found that liquid lubricant (labeled as Astroglide with lubricant glide, gel lubricant, liquid silk lubricant, and Vagisil) will be able to reduce the number of phagocytes infected with HIV and HIV in men’s sperm.

In the pilot found number of cells are infecting HIV virus decreased more than a thousand times. In addition, cells those are containing virus dead in five minutes. However, about 30 minutes required the virus to infect cells surface vagina or anus.

Lubricants can against the virus until eight hours duration, although it absorbed body heat to 37-Celsius degrees. In the sense, lubricants still effective after long lubricated. In fact, lubricants still powerful to kill the HIV even though they have been disbursed up to four times.

One of researcher explained lubricants have beneficial in the current era. Because many young people have the free sex actives and feared contracting the HIV virus. In addition, the lubricants may be hopeful for humankind, while vaccine was still not being finding before, that is able to kill off the virus.


Holocaust and Survival (or, Auschwitz vs. Babi Yar)

About 6 million Jews perished in the Holocaust.  This figure is sometimes cited as “between 5 and 6 million” because of the differences between known deaths and the results of estimates and calculations (see Wikipedia’s discussion of totals).  Virtually the whole of the Jewish population of Poland, the Baltics, and those parts of the Soviet Union occupied by the Nazis were swept away, utterly annihilated.  For example, as you’ll recall from my post the other day, less than 3% of Polish Jews actually survived within Nazi-occupied territory; the remainder survived only due to Stalin’s deportations.

And yet the story of the Holocaust, as we in the West know it, is one of survival.  We have Elie Wiesel’s narrative, Night. Schindler’s List.  My son recently had a field trip to the Illinois Holocaust Museum, and, as is their practice where possible, it was led by a survivor (though with something of a different story – her family had fled to Shanghai).  It rather seems to me that even Anne Frank’s diary we think of as a “survival narrative” — at least, I recall thinking of it in those terms:  reading the postscript that she died only a few short weeks prior to liberation, and thinking “she was so close to surviving.”

In general, the survivor narrative is considered to be crucial to understanding the Holocaust, and teaching about the Holocaust, and every now and again you come across articles worrying about the future of Holocaust education now that the survivors are aging and dying.

And that’s why I was stunned to read that there were two survivors of the death factory that was Belzec.  (p. 474 in Final Solution by David Cesarani, which I still have checked out from the library).  In the Babi Yar massacre, 29 survived the massacre.  (This comes from Wikipedia, and the footnote is a bad link.  Whether these 29 are all people who “played dead” and climbed out of the pits, or includes Jews in Kiev who didn’t report as ordered, or escaped the line somewhere along the way, isn’t clear.)

There’s a high school world history textbook online.  What does it have to say?  One page on the beginnings of persecution in Germany, and Kristallnacht.  One page that the Jews sought refuge elsewhere, and that they were placed in ghettos.  The third page, on the final solution says that killing squads killed, and other Jews were rounded up and taken to concentration camps/slave-labor prisons.  Then selections began at Auschwitz, and women, young children, the old, and the sick were killed.  (This sentence is poorly constructed; from what I understand, women were more likely to be judged unfit, but it was not a blanket statement as was the case with children and the elderly; what’s more, this paragraph implies that all such death camps had selections as Auschwitz did.)  It’s pretty paltry knowledge — adequate to check off a basic comprehension of the past but not sufficient to have this shape your understanding of the world.

Anyway, I was thinking about this again because of an article the other day about the “forgotten Holocaust” — that is, the killings in the Soviet Union, where “Of the estimated less than three million Soviet Jews who lived under Nazi occupation, only around 115,000 survived.”    This particular article featured a filmmaker’s project, and the link it gives to an article with more details on the project, reports that in the time of the Soviet Union there was simply no research on the Holocaust — something I’d read elsewhere, that the idea that the Jews were in any way victimized more than the rest of the USSR’s citizens wasn’t permitted.

Separately, in looking for a statistic on google, I came across an extended essay from 2009 by Timothy Snyder, “Holocaust: The Ignored Reality.” Here are some key paragraphs from that piece:

The very reasons that we know something about Auschwitz warp our understanding of the Holocaust: we know about Auschwitz because there were survivors, and there were survivors because Auschwitz was a labor camp as well as a death factory. These survivors were largely West European Jews, because Auschwitz is where West European Jews were usually sent. After World War II, West European Jewish survivors were free to write and publish as they liked, whereas East European Jewish survivors, if caught behind the iron curtain, could not. In the West, memoirs of the Holocaust could (although very slowly) enter into historical writing and public consciousness.

This form of survivors’ history, of which the works of Primo Levi are the most famous example, only inadequately captures the reality of the mass killing. The Diary of Anne Frank concerns assimilated European Jewish communities, the Dutch and German, whose tragedy, though horrible, was a very small part of the Holocaust. By 1943 and 1944, when most of the killing of West European Jews took place, the Holocaust was in considerable measure complete. Two thirds of the Jews who would be killed during the war were already dead by the end of 1942. The main victims, the Polish and Soviet Jews, had been killed by bullets fired over death pits or by carbon monoxide from internal combustion engines pumped into gas chambers at Treblinka, Bełzec, and Sobibór in occupied Poland.

I want to be careful not to build a strawman. If I were, it would be something like this:

Americans know about concentration camps, and gas chambers, but that’s about it, but the emphasis on survivors, and survivor narratives gives them the impression that the Holocaust was indeed survivable if you were healthy enough, and young enough (but not too young), and clever enough, and had sufficient Will to Live.

That’s clearly going too far.  But what I’ve been reading lately makes me wonder, what are the consequences of the “survivor-oriented” nature of the way Americans speak about and learn about the Holocaust?

Of course, I suppose you could take a step back and ask,

What are the consequences, in general, of knowing about the Holocaust, whether a crappy high-school history version of “Nazis killed Jews, then end” or a more detailed understanding?  How does it affect your perception of world affairs, of ethnic relations, your understanding of human nature?  And how does this changed perception affect the way you live your life and the decisions you make?

And that’s all I’ve got for you.  In a perfect world, I’d find someone to hire me to read and write all day.  In the real world, I’ve got a load of laundry to switch out.

Image:  memorial at Babi Yar.

Rhetorical Devices in the Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy

It is according to Aristotle that a speaker or writer has three ways to persuade his audience: The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second is on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third is on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself.

One of the most influential people who made a memorable speech for the past century is President John F. Kennedy, a famous public speaker who wrote an inaugural address that contains a power to persuade a lot of people.

His well-known speech shows how his method of using the art of persuasive written or spoken discourse (Rhetoric) that an author or speaker uses to convey a meaning to the listener or reader contributes to the purpose or theme of his message for his countrymen.

Definition of Terms:

1. Alliteration: Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.

2. Allusion: A brief or indirect reference to a person, place, event, or passage in a work of literature or the Bible assumed to be sufficiently well known to be recognized by the reader.

3. Amplification: An expansion of detail to clarify a point.

4. Analogy: A comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of the more simple.

5. Anaphora: Repetition of one or more words at the head of consecutive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

6. Anastrophe: Inversion of word order to mark emphasis.

7. Antimetabole: Reverasal or repeated words or phrases for effect.

8. Antithesis: Contrast within parallel phrases (not to be confused with the ordinary use of the word to mean “extreme opposite”).

9. Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants.

10. Asyndeton: Absence of conjunctions.

11. Chiasmus: The reversal of grammatical order from one phrase to the next.

12. Climax: Consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis.

13. Conduplication: Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.

14. Consonance: Repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity.

15. Ellipsis: Any omitted part of speech that is easily understood in context.

16. Ethos: Makes use of what an audience values and believes to be good or true.

17. Hyperbole: Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis.

18. Imagery: Lively descriptions which impress the images of things upon the mind using one or more of the five senses.

19. Logos: appealing to reason in a measured, logical way.

20. Metanoia: The qualification of a statement to either diminish or strengthen its tone.

21. Metaphor: Meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another.

22. Oxymoron: Contraditory terms or ideas are combined.

23. Parallelism: The technique of arranging words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form.

24. Paradox: A statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have a rational meaning.

25. Pathos: Appealing to the emotions.

26. Personification: The attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object.

27. Polysyndeton: Insertion of conjunctions before each word in a list.

28. Repetition: Word or phrase used two or more times in close proximity.

29. Rhetorical Question: A question asked for rhethorical effect to emphasize a point, no answer being expected.

30. Sententia: The punctuation of a point with an aphorism.

31. Syntax: The grammatical structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence.

32. Tricolon: A series of parallel words, phrases, clauses, or statements.

33. Zeugma: Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech.

Rhetorical Devices That Are Present In The Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy:


• “same solemn” (2nd sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• “man holds in his mortal hands” (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• “for which our forebears fought” (2nd sentence of 3rd paragraph)

• “to friend and foe alike” (4th paragraph)

• “whether it wishes us well or ill” (5th paragraph)

• “Pay any price, bear any burden… ” (5th paragraph)

• “the survival and the success of liberty” (5th paragraph)

• “faithful friends” (1st sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• “colonial control” (1st sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• “strongly supporting” (2nd sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• “break the bonds of mass misery” (9th paragraph)

• “sovereign states” (11th paragraph)

• “its writ may run” (11th paragraph)

• “the dark powers of destruction” (12th paragraph)

• “steady spread” (14th paragraph)

• “sincerity is always subject” (15th paragraph)

• “peace preserved” (9th to the last paragraph)

• “bear the burden” (6th to the last paragraph)

• “a grand and global alliance” (5th to the last paragraph)

• “high standards of strength and sacrifice” (1st sentence of the last paragraph)

• “Let us go forth to lead the land we love… ” (2nd sentence of the last paragraph)


• “I have sworn before you and Almighty God.” (2nd sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• “those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside” (last sentence of the 8th paragraph)


• “Let both sides… Let both sides… Let both sides… Let both sides (Paragraphs 16 to 19)


• “those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside” (3rd sentence of the 8th paragraph)


• “all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life” (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• “not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right” (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “To those old allies… To those new states… To those people… To our sister… To that world… to those nations… ” (Paragraphs 7 to 12)

• “We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom” (2nd and 3rd sentences of the 8th paragraph)

• “both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind’s final war” (14th paragraph)

• “Let both sides… Let both sides… Let both sides… Let both sides” (Paragraphs 16 to 19)

• “not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need–not as a call to battle, though embattled we are–but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out” (6th to the last paragraph)

• “the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet” (8th to the last paragraph)


• “Dare not” (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph and 13th paragraph & 3rd sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• “This much we pledge” (6th paragraph)

• “Ask not” (26th paragraph)


• “Ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.” (3rd to the last paragraph)

• “Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.” (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)


• “We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom–symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change. ” (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• “… not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God.” (2nd sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• “Support any friend, oppose any foe… ” (5th paragraph)

• “United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do… ” (2nd sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• “Not because… not because… but because… ” (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate.” (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• “Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.” (16th paragraph)

• “not a new balance of power, but a new world of law” (20th paragraph)

• “Not as a call to bear arms… not as a call to battle.. but a call to bear the burden… ” (23rd paragraph)

• “I do not shrink from this responsibility–I welcome it.” (2nd sentence of the 25th paragraph)

• “… ask not what you country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” (26th paragraph)

• “ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man” (2nd to the last paragraph)


• “… the steady spread of the deadly atom.” (14th paragraph)


• “We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe… ” (5th paragraph)

• “explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths” (2nd sentence of the 18th paragraph)

• “The energy, the faith, the devotion” (4th to the last paragraph)


• “Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.” (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• “ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country” (3rd to the last paragraph)


• “All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.” (8th to the last paragraph)


• “to help them help themselves” (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “good words into good deeds” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “free men and free governments” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace” (11th paragraph)

• “absolute power… absolute control… ” (17th paragraph)


• “Whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall… ” (5th paragraph)


• “This much we pledge–and more.” (6th paragraph)


• “Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow citizens: We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom–symbolizing an end as well as a beginning–signifying renewal as well as change.” (Paragraphs 1 & 2)

• “In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility–I welcome it.” (4th to the last paragraph)

• “With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God’s work must truly be our own.” (last sentence of the last paragraph)


• “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” (5th paragraph)


• “The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans.” (4th paragraph)


• “old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share” (1st sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• “new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free” (1st sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• “people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery” (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations” (11th paragraph)

• “nations who would make themselves our adversary” (12th paragraph)


• “Now the trumpet summons us again–not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need–not as a call to battle, though embattled we are–but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, “rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation”–a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease and war itself.” (6th to the last paragraph)


• “We are the heirs of the first revolution.” (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “Let the word go forward from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans… ” (2nd sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “riding the back of the tiger” (3rd sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• “the bonds of mass misery” (9th paragraph)

• “the chains of poverty” (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “evolution of hope” (2nd sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “master of its own house” (last sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• “balance of terror” (14th paragraph)

• “And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion… ” (20th paragraph)

• “The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it–and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.” (4th to the last paragraph)


• “But this peaceful revolution.” (2nd sentence of the 10th paragraph)


• “We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom–symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change.” (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• “born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage” (2nd sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” (5th paragraph)

• “Let both sides explore what problems unite us… Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms… Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science… Let both sides unite… ” (Paragraphs 6 to 9)

• “United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do… ” (2nd and 3rd sentences of the 7th paragraph)

• “If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.” (2nd sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond” (2nd sentence of the 13th paragraph)


• “Only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.” (2nd sentence of the 13th paragraph)


• “To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery… ” (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• “he graves of young Americans who answered the call toservice surround the globe” (7th to the last paragraph)

• ” The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it–and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.” (4th to the last paragraph)


• “With history the final judge of our deeds” (2nd sentence of the last paragraph)


• “where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved” (9th to the last paragraph)


• “For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life.” (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

*Rhetorical Question

• “Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?” (5th to the last paragraph)


• “undo the heavy burdens… (and) let the oppressed go free” (19th paragraph)


• “My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.” (2nd to the last paragraph)


• “We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom–symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change.” (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• “not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need–not as a call to battle, though embattled we are–but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out” (6th to the last paragraph)


• “Now the trumpet summons us again–not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need–not as a call to battle, though embattled we are–but a call to bear the burden… ” (6th to the last paragraph)

Encapsulation of Findings:

John F. Kennedy used 33 different types of rhetorical devices in his inaugural speech. The most dominant rhetorical device that he used was the usage of alliteration.


Through extensive analysis, it can be seen that it is evident that he has a goal of getting the audience’s attention to listen and to understand his points in a meaningful way in the fields of writing and speaking.

Source by Charwina Mallari

Breast Cancer Stages

Breast cancer stages are based on whether the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, whether the lymph nodes have been affected, whether the cancer cells have already spread beyond the breast, and the size of the tumor.

The purpose of identifying the stage in breast cancer is to organize the different factors and features of the cancer. In organizing the factors involved, the prognosis or the most likely outcome of the disease will be identified. The doctor can also provide the patient with the best treatment guide for the disease.

Stage 0. In this stage, the breast cancer is non-invasive. It just simply means that there is no sign of non-cancerous abnormal cells or cancerous cells getting out of the part of the breast where they started. These cells have not yet invaded other neighboring normal tissues in the breast.

Stage 1.

In this stage, the breast cancer is said to be invasive. The cancer cells are already breaking out of the part of the breast where they started and they have already invaded neighboring normal tissues. But in Stage 1, the lymph nodes are not affected or involved and the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters.

Stage 2.

Stage 2 is described as invasive breast cancer and is subdivided into two categories: Stage 2A and Stage 2B. In Stage 2A, there is no tumor in the breast but a 2 centimeters or less tumor can be found scattered in the axillary lymph nodes, which is the lymph node found under the arm.

Another case of Stage 2A is that, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not more than 5 centimeters and has not spread in the axillary lymph nodes. In stage 2B, the tumor is also larger than 2 centimeters but not more than 5 and has already spread to the axillary lymph nodes or if the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters, the tumor has not yet spread the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage 3.

Stage 3 is described as one of the invasive breast cancer stages and is subdivided into 3 categories: Stage 3A, Stage 3B and Stage 3C. In Stage 3A, there is no tumor in the breast but it is found in the axillary lymph nodes or the lymph nodes near the breast bone. The tumor has the size of less than 5 centimeters or more and they are clustered together or they may stick to other structures.

In Stage 3B, the tumor may be of any size and found in the lymph nodes under the arm or near the breastbone, chest wall and/or skin of the breast, clustered together or sticking to other structures. In Stage 3C, there can still be no sign of cancer in the breast. The tumor may be of any size and found to be spread to the chest wall, lymph nodes above or below the collarbone, lymph nodes under the arm or breastbone.

Stage 4.

Stage 4 is described as one of the invasive breast cancer stages in which the cancer has already spread to other organs of the body; usually the brain, lungs, liver or bone.

Car Ownership Programs Helping People With Low Incomes to Purchase New Vehicles (Jun. 16th, 2009) – In the today’s transportation obsessed economy, a large majority of all the workers or employees must drive or be driven to their jobs, in order to earn a living, and why not, in order just to survive in this so called modern world. Yet, one of the most difficult purchases for a low-income family must be represented by a car. Because of the poor public transportation in most of the cities and towns, car ownership represents one of the most important pieces in the employment puzzle. While most of the residential spaces are out of the town, workers of all kinds and types will need to have a car in order to get in time to their offices, which are mostly located in the center of the “urban jungle”.

So, not owning a car can represent an inconvenient factor for an individual or for a family. A normal family in the United States will need to have at least one car, if not two (two is the standard and required number of cars for an average family). But, what can be done for the low income families and low income individuals who are not able to buy at least one car that can help them in getting and maintaining a job?

One of the answers can come from the federal and state aid organizations. People are often opting to donate their used cars to these governmental institutions, rather then selling them for marginal profits as it is used to do. All these car donations are helping the charity programs to raise money and also provide reliable transportation facilities to the low income families and individuals. This is not a business, but more like a helping-hand given by the United States government and accredited institutions to the persons who are in a desperate need for a car. A person cannot buy a donated car unless he or she meets the specific requirements pertaining to the fiscal situation.

In the case the car donation charity will not suit your desired need – There will be many other low-income car ownership programs. Each and every of these programs can be suitable and helpful for a segment of the population, all of them having the capability of providing the low-income families to purchase their dreamed cars for the exact purpose of retaining employment.

Donated cars have been sold and used starting from the year of 1996, when the Welfare Reform Law has passed. This law has suffered several small modifications in 2005, 2006 and 2007, offering now opportunities and possibilities to all the types of low-income families.

There are also private car ownership programs, which are offering low-income loans on a constant basis. Donated cars can be also bought from the private companies, where individuals and families can find cars at reasonable prices. In addition, there are other companies which are selling brand new cars at lower prices, due to the support from the state and governmental institutions. Also, some of the standard Car Loan or Car Lease companies are feeling comfortable to offer low-income financing to the individuals or families in need. is an online resource dedicated to providing information to help increase private automobile ownership for individuals and families earning low wages and incomes. By providing this service we hope to help support their ability to find and retain quality employment.

A Brief Look into Stage 4 Prostate Cancer

Understanding prostate cancer stage 4 can help to understand the symptoms, signs and available treatments for that diagnosis. Stage 4 prostate cancer, also written as Stage IV, cells have invaded beyond the prostate and the seminal vesicles and now are growing in the bladder, rectum or other near by structures. It may have also spread to the bones, lymph nodes and to other parts of the body. The TNM staging system is used in addition to the stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV classification. TNM staging which further identifies the spread of the tumor. T stands for tumor and indicates that the tumor is within the prostate. N stands for nodes and describes whether the prostate cancer can be found in any lymph nodes and to what extent it has spread. M stands for metastasis and identifies the distant spread of cancer to other parts of the body for example the liver or the bones.

There are numbers associated with the TNM staging as well giving a further in depth understanding of the cancer diagnosis. Stage 4 prostate cancer usually has the symptoms of other stages as well as one unique to its advanced stage. Stage IV prostate cancer includes problems urinating as well as painful urination and ejaculation. There may also be a dull, persistent deep pain or stiffness in the pelvic area, the lower back, ribs or upper thigh areas. There may also be pain in the bones of those areas. There may be a noticeable amount of weight loss or a loss of appetite. Fatigue, nausea or vomiting may also be present. There may be a swelling of the lower extremities along with weakness or even paralysis of the lower limbs. Constipation can also be another symptom as well.

When prostate cancer stage 4 is diagnosed depending on the additional parts of the body involved with the staging the symptoms will be different and specific to that organ or body part. While there is currently no cure for stage iv prostate cancer, there are treatment options that are available to help control it. Most often the first treatment for metastic stage 4 prostate cancer patients is ADT or Androgen Deprivation Therapy. ADT helps to reduce the level of male hormones in the body. This can shrink tumors and slow down the growth of cancer cells. It can usually help for about 2 years at which time a secondary form of hormone therapy can be used to overcome the resistance to ADT. Drug and Radiation therapy are used when the prostate cancer has spread to the bones. The idea is to prolong life at this point. There are other alternative treatments available too.

Can Sacramento California’s Levees Survive A Robust Pine Apple Express Atmospheric River?

In watching the huge amount of precipitation that will deluge Northern California just after the first week of 2017 our Think Tank dared to ask the question no one wants to talk about; are the Sacramento Levees safe? It turns out that Arnold Schwarzenegger as Governor of California tried to get the upgrading of those levees into the budget several times (along with water retention projects for droughts), but the Democrat majority in the California Legislature at the time wanted to spend that money on social programs.

At the time Democrats called it a victory, but perhaps in hindsight they set the state up for a pending disaster, we shall soon see as this mega storm drops it’s mother load on California. How much water will hit Northern California? Well, he Los Angeles Times had an interesting article published on January 6, 2017 titled; “In Mammoth Lakes, preparing for a mammoth storm,” by Tony Barboza, Hailey Branson-Potts and Joseph Serna which stated:

“The epic system could dump so much rain and snow that some ski runs and roads are closed warning of significant flooding, mudslides and avalanches in the Sierra Nevada. Up to 12 inches of rain is expected on areas below 8,500 feet & up to 7 feet of snow in higher elevations. The storm was packing the same wallop as one that hit Northern California in 2005, causing $300 million in damage. This system could bring 36-hours of heavy rain to parts of Northern CA. While that is good news for California, in its 6th year of drought, the coming rain could melt already-standing snow – feeding watersheds swollen from storms earlier this week.”

True enough and other reports from the Weather Channel suggest that the amount of water could be in the neighborhood of 15-Mississippi Rivers and about 57 Trillions of gallons of water, enough to actually affect the planet’s rotation, albeit only few hundredth of a second. Will the mistake of the California Legislature during Arnold’s tenure as governor and the subsequent years recently under Jerry Brown cost the US Taxpayer around the country 100s of Billions of dollars? It just might, and this will be a tough call for the Trump Administration if that levee system fails and drowns thousands of people and put a good chunk of Sacramento underwater.

How bad is the situation? Well, it turns out there was a lot of snow pack, about a decade ago, one year that put the snow levels at 175% of normal and they were extremely worried back then, fast forward 10-years later, more wear and tear on the levee system and no major upgrades, that could spell disaster and anyone who isn’t worried about it, isn’t paying attention – let’s just hope the experts and weather forecasters got this one wrong. Think on it – be great, don’t hesitate.

Source by Lance Winslow