Canine Lymphoma (Dog's Cancer)

This article will discuss generally about dog’s cancer that also known as Canine Lymphoma. This dog’s cancer (also called lymphosarcoma) is the most common type of cancer to affect dogs. It is a condition in which cancer cells can grow anywhere there is lymph tissue. Therefore, the cancer cells can grow in almost any organ in your dog’s body and will eventually cause one of them to fail.

Canine Lymphoma represents a common neoplasia of dogs affecting the entire lymphatic system including the spleen, thymus and liver. Its may occur in dogs of any age but is seen more frequently in dogs over 5 years of age. One in four dogs will get cancer at some time in their lives. This statistic appears to be conservative compared to the cancer incidence in ferrets and cats.

This dog’s cancer mostly infected in American dogs, and fortunately, it is very treatable. It is about 50% of dogs with canine lymphoma can be put into remission. Most lymphomas respond very well to modern therapy, by using a combination of chemotherapy (sometimes radiation, although not very often).

Treatment for canine lymphoma is relatively effective, but can also get expensive. Chemotherapy is a  preferred method of treatment for canine lymphoma. Most dogs that undergo this treatment go into remission. Dogs that have one remission can usually go into remission a second time. However, the second remission usually lasts half as long as the first. Most dogs undergoing treatment for canine lymphoma can survive one to two more years after diagnosis. The chemotherapy drugs can be given orally at home or as an injection at the vet’s office. Dogs that are in stage 5 of canine lymphoma, the stage where bone marrow is affected, don’t respond well to chemotherapy drugs.

Canine Lymphoma is a website that providing more information about symptoms and treatment of this dog’s cancer.

I Will Survive – Can You Stand the Rain?

Life is not easy. Senseless violence continues to claim innocent lives. The unemployment rate is steadily rising. People are losing their homes and are now destitute. Man, when it rains it pours. But what is a person to do when the storm seems relentless? What happens when the rain will not let up? One thing is certain: it can destroy you if you let it.

The ills of life can be stressful. You get weak sometimes and allow your obstacles to get the best of you. If you're not careful, it might change you into a miserable individual. You'll develop a depressing disposition that will not do anything except make the storm more unbearable. If you could only see the turbulence in your life in a brighter light, your burdens will not seem so heavy.

When things get complicated, it becomes easy for individuals to feel like victims. But the challenge is judging your ordeal from an optimistic perspective. It's about taking adversity and turning it into triumph. Trials and tribulations, without a doubt, push you to what seems like your limit, but the things that push you the hardest are what make you who you are.

Hardships are designed to be overcome. Seize this opportunity to step your game up and better yourself. We must face problems daily in order to survive. It's similar to the caterpillar inside the cocoon. Before it can flee its nest, it MUST endure the struggle of breaking down the walls of the cocoon. If the caterpillar does not experience this strife, it can not and will not survive. However, if it does, the caterpillar will then go on to live as a beautiful butterfly.

Surviving troubled times does, indeed, make one a stronger and better person. Though it may not feel good, be patient and stand firm. And once you've stood the test (because it's all a test), you will flourish into who you were meant to be. Defeat your adversities; do not let them defeat you. Brave the storm and you will evolve into that beautiful butterfly.



Source by Shakirah Brown

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Polar Bears Are Now Facing Another Threat to Their Survival

Polar bears are already seriously threatened by climate change, but according to a new study they’re also facing another significant threat to their survival — toxic pollutants.

For the study, which was just published in the journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, researchers analyzed data from four decades of research on exposure to toxins in species including Arctic cod, ringed seals and polar bears.

Specifically, they were looking at a class of pollutants in the Arctic known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that stay in the environment for long periods, accumulate in humans and wildlife, and are known to be toxic to both. These POPs are able to spread widely throughout the environment, and make their way through the food chain from plankton all the way to polar bears, accumulating in highly toxic doses as they move through the system to larger animals.

Unfortunately, researchers found polar bears fared the worst, with exposures that were 100 times higher than what is considered safe for an adult bear. More concerning is that for cubs who are exposed to toxins through their mother’s milk, the risk was 1000 times greater. According to the study, these pollutants are known endocrine disrupters, which could have a serious impact on developing cubs.

“This work is the first attempt to quantify the overall risk of POPs for the Arctic ecosystem and to define a ranking in order to highlight the most dangerous chemicals in the mixture,” said Sara Villa, a toxicologist at Italy’s University of Milano Bicocca and co-lead author of the study.

Unlike PCBs, these pollutants are still in production. Some make their way into the environment through agriculture, while others are applied as industrial products, or created as byproducts in industrial production. POPs also change in composition and while some have been banned, new ones are still entering the environment. One in particular, perfluorooctane sulfonate, which was used as a fabric protector, among other things, is still posing a high risk to polar bears.

The study’s authors note that since the 1980s, control measures have helped decrease the risk to cubs,  but they still hope that further mitigation and control measures will be implemented to stop POPs from becoming an even bigger problem, or one that will take generations to resolve.

“The results demonstrate that international control measures are effective at reducing the risk to ecosystems. Nevertheless it is fundamental to continuously implement the control of new and emerging contaminants,” added co-lead author Marco Vighi.

For polar bears, every measure to protect them will help. Even without taking this issue into account, another recently published study concluded that one-third of the world’s total polar bear population is going to disappear over the next 35 years as they continue to lose the sea ice they need to survive because of climate change.

Money as a Motivator

INTRODUCTION:

It is a fact that for a living, food, shelter and clothes are needed. To get all these necessities one has to possess money. This is a great truth that one cannot deny. Money is an indispensable thing like oxygen for survival which can buy anything to everything in this world. It is therefore a precious thing of our life and belongings. Money makes the world go round, and nowhere is this more true than in the workplace. With money, all the necessities including luxuries can be bought for living as well as enjoying life. This is the sole reason why money attracts people, exhibiting its novel character of being a great motivator at work places. Everyone work to earn and get money and better wages can induce or motivate workers to do the best.

Employers know that money is one of the best motivators. However, are bonuses or cash awards always the best way to reward employees?

There are some circumstances where money is the best recognition for extra work, there are other times it is inappropriate.

The primary reason why people have to work is because of money. People are motivated by money the most, and cash is a fair and effective way for management to show appreciation to hardworking staff. Employers know this, and many companies reward outstanding employees with bonuses and cash rewards for good work.

But, in the same time this is demeaning, trivializing, and bad for morale. People are motivated by different things. Some employees have financial goals, others have professional goals, and others have personal goals. So, money alone cannot work for achieving everything. Since every person is motivated by something different, money may not work for every employee. Some people have motivation from within or intrinsically. These people do not often need rewards or encouragement to keep them motivated to complete or finish a task. They have the mind set to succeed. Others are extrinsically motivated, or need outside forces to keep them interested in completing a chore or tasks. These are the people that need a lot of encouragement, rewards or praise in order to stay motivated to complete a task.

Money awards are effective:

  •  Hunger is the greatest motivational force.Money is the tool to achieve many things in life. If you sum up them all, money does assume a great importance.
  •  Money motivates people, and extra money motivates people to work extra.
  • · Employees compete to raise productivity or standards.
  •  It is not always possible to promote people, so money is a simple way to reward workers.
  • Money is acceptable for all workers – some may not appreciate a particular present, or some gifts may be insulting.
  •  Money often plays an important role in someone’s decision to join or leave a company.

Money is only sometimes effective, or sometimes does not work:

  •   If employees are highly paid, money may not be sufficient. They may prefer other benefits, such as an award ceremony or dinner, a club membership, a travel ticket, a car, a window office, etc.
  • Money may set employees against each other, leading to conflict in the office.
  • It may be difficult to determine the standard or basis for the decision to award the employee.
  • Employees may feel forced to compete.

Money is not effective:

  •  Employees work for a salary – they do not want to perform like circus animals if paid more.
  • Money trivializes work, which for many professional employees should be its own reward.
  • The amount may not bear relation to what the employee does.
  •  If the employer finds it motivating to award money, perhaps the salaries are too low.
  •  There are many other ways to motivate employees such as appreciation, admiration, performance recognition, fringe benefits, job security, personal growth, good atmosphere, top technologies, interesting products or well-organized processes  etc.
  •  Empowering workers with responsibility, respecting personal boundaries, recognizing employees as valued resources and creating supportive relationships will go further than just a pay increase towards satisfying employees.  
  • Happy, motivated employees who clearly know what is expected of them and who are given the opportunity to learn and grow in their careers are much more likely to make long-term commitments to their place of work. There is no requirement of motivating them by money.

CONCLUSION:

Money is the greatest motivator for those people who want it to be because if people go around living and breathing for money than it is. Everyone does need money to survive but you don’t need a lot of it to survive because there are some people in this world who can survive with Rs.500 to Rs.1000 in their pockets. Let’s say that there is a stock broker or a wall-street banker, they live it and breathe it, they make commissions or get promoted with every correct quote or point or how much money is in their bank – that’s what motivates them, and the same goes for someone who grew up badly, their motivation is to make it any way possible by making a name for themselves and staying on top; never wanting to return to their past life. A person who is comfortable living the simple life and simply surviving, they may not want to change their lifestyle because they think that money is the root of all evil or are scared of success, period or afraid of losing themself in the money but money can be a motivator but it depends on your outlook on money and what you personally want to do with it or where you want to go.

My Pick For the Top Three Military Survival Knives Available

The modern military survival knife has its origins at around the turn of the last century. A man by the name of Webster Marbles created the first modern style hunting knife and survival knives have taken their queue from that first hunting knife. Up until that time most hunting knives were little more than kitchen knives and survival knives were bayonets. Neither worked very well for the task at hand.

The military started buying survival knives in bulk and worked with the manufacturers to get the best possible knife for their troops. For instance, the saw teeth on the back of the blade were originally put there so that a downed pilot could cut his way through the thin metal of the fuselage.

In the 1980's military survival knives saw a resurgence with the release of the Rambo movies. Although these knives worked well in the movies, they could not hold up to the rigors of the real world environment.

The following are some of the best knife companies and knives available today:

1. Gerber manufactures the LMF II series of knives. These knives have been approved by the US Airforce as an ASEK knife. ASEK stands for Aviation Support Element, Kaneohe.

2. SOG manufactures the SEAL 2000 knife which has been approved for use by the US Navy SEALS.

3. Ka-Bar has been making the USMC Fighting / Utility knife since the mid 1920's. This knife was approved for use by the US Marines.

Knife technology has come a long way from man's first knives made out of flint. Rubberized handles, better blade materials, and even built in features make today's knives some of the most incredible tools and weapons man has ever created.



Source by Marlin Zeller

Updated Chennai Expat and NRI Handbook and Survival Guide

Shillong, July 18, 2009, India Reports the website that provides the most relevant and upto date information on India and doing business in India has launched the updated version of the Chennai Expat and NRI Handbook and Survival Guide.

Are you relocating to Chennai?

  • Is Chennai a good city for making a home and raising a family?
  • What is special about this city?
  • Is it too conservative?

These are sure to be the questions on your mind if you are planning to visit or relocate to Chennai. This city has a unique character. It is traditional, progressive and culturally very rich. If you want to experience life in a city that’s a perfect example of India’s economic and technological boom, yet retaining some of its most valued traditions and cultural wealth, Chennai is a brilliant choice.

This eBook is meant to give you a head start in Chennai. It answers all basic questions about the city, cross cultural issues, utility and services, schools and medical facilities, information resources, shopping hot spots, recreational and cultural centres, doing business and more. Interviews with expats and NRIs give you the real picture about life in Chennai and how it has changed from a sleepy town to a ‘hip and worldly’ city. Despite the visible change, expats are still advised to ‘make the cultural adjustment expected even in the most modern Indian cities – to be a bit more conscious of what you wear, avoid display of affection in public etc. if you don’t want to attract unnecessary attention’. The ‘Chilli Tips’ will make your life easier and opinion from those who moved here is to ‘Take it easy / enjoy your time!

The updated version of the Chennai Expat guide (http://www.india-reports.com/summary/Chennaiexpatguide.aspx) has checked URLs, more snippets of interesting information and experience-sharing by new arrivals to Chennai.

India Reports has published guides for Indian cities including Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Noida and Bangalore. Our expat survival guides provide selective and relevant information for the expat reader. They do not have any promotional content or advertorials.

India Reports also provides specific research to suit needs of customers on request. Special offers are also available on the purchase of multiple reports.

Prisoner’s Wife – How to Survive!

“I do!” were the words that both my husband and I confirmed to each other face to face the day of our blessed wedding day about 2 and half years ago. My mind was racing with wonderful thoughts about how much I loved him and how happy I was to be committed to him as now his wife. Finally, we will live happily together in our new home we bought and begin to create memories to share back with our future children. Our marital experiences were great until the prison system intervened 2 months later in our marriage.

We married late September 2007 and now he was gone to prison 2 months after… December of the same year-2007! My first married Christmas without him already. It was all but a blurry experience that happened so fast so quickly and now he was gone for 8 years according to the prison system for a conspiracy crime. What? Murderers do less time, child abuse felons do less time… how was this possible? All of the confusion and misunderstanding was all part of the grieving process wives with husbands in prison experience. Little did I know I would be in that percentage. I know that there are many wives going through similar experiences as I do and we are definitely not alone with over 2.3 million people currently in the nation’s prisons or jails too many wives are left alone doing “time” at home without a survival kit. How does a faithful wife cope for months and years without the “head” of the family?

Through my own experiences I have developed a survival kit for myself I’d like to share with other wives making it day by day…waiting for that phone call..and looking forward for the next “visit” you know what I mean. The special times spent talking about everything you can to connect and keep your marriage strong and going. Well, over the past 2 and a half years my husband has been in prison, I have survived my “time” at home by using these 5 tips I call my survival kit. I can say that I am less stressful and more balanced than many wives that DO have their husbands home with them? Strange right? Try them for yourself and understand my feelings of “it’s going to be okay” here you go:

1. Stay Positive-Reflect on why you married your husband to help you think of the qualities you love about him to help reassure your commitment to him. Share his great qualities whenever you can, with friends, family and co-workers that know him (this helps you smile and keep feeling proud of the man you married)

2. Heal-Cry, look at photos, renew your hope for the future by keeping pictures of great memories around every room around the house, yes even the bathroom!

3. Keep him in the loop-share daily events, funny experiences with family and friends at work, share when others mention positive things about him. Write letters at least twice a week (how exciting to get love letters), talk daily over the phone and be sure to include him in making decisions at home, send books and magazines of his interest, read the same books, use words of affirmation like (I am so happy to be your wife….your voice brings me peace…), value his role as a husband at ALL times.

4. Connect with your spiritual side-Unexplainable peace, strength, empowerment occurs that helps transform your lonely days into grateful and hopeful ones. Join a church where you may share your sorrow and experiences of a Prisoners wife without feeling judged this will give you a sense of relief. Read biblical verses daily and connect with your inner soul to give you powerful strength that help you cope for the absence of your husband.

5. Keep busy! Do the things you always wanted to do, but you didn’t have time for when he was here. Like go to back to school, learn a new skill (ceramics, gardening, scrapbooking…). Go out with friends for dinners, spend time with family or involve yourself at work with more projects.

It hasn’t been easy and I sympathize with all wives whose husband’s are apart from them. Yet, I have learned to maintain focus on all the positive experiences as a prisoner’s wife. Family, friends and co-workers who know about our situation or don’t know have expressed that I look so happily married and that my husband seems like a wonderful person. Well, he is and I am happily married because my communication is stronger, my perspective towards marriage is different, my role as a Prisoner’s wife has helped me to value both small and big things between every moment my husband and I share. I smile when I see his pictures and think “this is temporary” we are both healthy, have the privilege to see each other, talk daily and write and connect like we never did before. We have learned to appreciate each other and not take our marriage or our presence for granted-who can beat that feeling! God Bless you all and you are all in my daily prayers… keep the strength, faith and hope!



Source by Michelle Martinez

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

*Shanmukha Rao. Padala  **Dr. N. V.S. Suryanarayana

INTRODUCTION:

            The managers focused on “today’s decisions for today’s business” in earlier times. However the rapid changes experienced by companies have made the managers to anticipate the future and prepare for it. They have prepared systems, procedures and manuals and evolved budgets and planning and control systems, which included capital budgeting and management by objectives. The inadequacy of these techniques has led to the emergence of long range planning which in turn gives rise to strategic planning and subsequently to strategic management.

            Strategic management deals with decision making and actions which determine an enterprise’s ability to excel, survive or die by making the best use of a firm’s resources in a dynamic environment. The main purpose of study of strategic management is to examine why some organizations succeed while fail and yet others completely change.

Evolution:

            Most of the firms were happly focusing attention on their day-to-day, short-term activities, till 1930s. In an environment characterized by very little competition, a functional orientation supported by budgeting and control systems guided the fortunes of firms. The adhoc policy making yielded ground to planned policy formulation and by 1940 the emphasis shifted to the integration of functional areas in the context of environmental demands. The period between 1960s and 1980s, was characterized by rapid environmental changes and increased complexity of business functions necessitating long range planning and comprehensive business policies aimed at placing a firm in an advantageous relationship to its environment. During the 1980s and early 1990s, interest in the role of strategy in building competitive advantage resulted in a shift of interest toward the internal aspects of the firm. Strategic management is currently the core of business policy discipline everywhere.

            Strategic management is the process by which organizations try to determine what needs to be done to achieve corporate objectives and more importantly, how these objectives are to be met. Ideally, it is a process by which senior management examines the organization and the environment in which it operates and attempts to establish an appropriate and optimal fit between the two to ensure the organisation’s success. Strategic planning is usually done over three to five time horizons by senior management or when some important event impacts the organization, such as a merger or acquisition, or its environment.

Definition of Strategic Management

There is no consensus about the concept of strategic management. Strategic management is the continuous process of relating the organization with its environment by suitable course of action involving strategy formulation, its implementation and mobilizing organizational resources for the purpose.

“Strategic management is concerned with deciding on strategy and planning how that strategy is to be put to be into effect”.

According to Samuel C. Certo and J. Paul Peter, “Strtegic management is a continuous, iterative, cross-functional process aimed at keeping an organization as a whole appropriately matched to its environment.” A series of steps that a manager must take are identified by this definition. These steps include performing an environmental analysis, establishing organizational direction, formulating organizational strategy, implementing organizational strategy and exercising strategic control.

Schellenberger and Bosenan define the term Strategic management as, “the continuous process of effectively relating the organization’s objectives and resources to the opportunities in the environment.” Strategic management is primarily concerned with relating the orgnisation to its environment, formulating strategies to adapt to the environment and assuring that implementation of strategies taken place.

The following are the features of this definition.

  1. Strategic management is basically a process. Strategic management involves establishing a framework to perform various processes.
  2. Various processes of management are:

[a]. Surveillance of environment;

[b]. Identification of various opportunities;

[c]. Evaluation of the organizations strengths and weaknesses;

[d]. Formulation of various strategies for achieving these objectives; [e]. Implementation of these strategies and

[f]. Evaluation and monitoring of the outcome of these strategies.

  1. The focus of Strategic Management is on relating the organisation to its external environment;
  2. Strategic management is basically a top management function. The environment is constantly changing providing new opportunities and threats, top management must spend more time on this aspect. There is a shift from operational management to strategic management.           

 

Nature of Strategic Management  

           strategic management is required in the complexity and sophistication of business decision making. Managing various and multifaceted internal activities is only part of the modern executive’s responsibilities. Strategic management may be defined as the set of decisions and actions resulting in formulation and implementation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of an organisation. It covers the following nine critical areas;

  •  Determining the mission of the company;
  • Developing a company profile that reflects internal conditions and capabilities;
  • Assessment of the company’s external environment
  • Analysis of various options in matching the company profile with external environment;
  • Identifying the desired option in light of the company mission;
  • Strategic choice of a particular set of long term objectives;
  • Development of annual objectives and short term strategies in tune with long term and grand strategies;
  • Implementing strategic choice decisions based on budgeted resources. and
  • Review and evaluation of the success of the strategic process to serve as a basis for control.

                                                                                                                          

Thus, strategic management involves the planning, directing, organising and controlling of the strategy related decisions and actions of the business.           

Strategic Decision

strategic decisions is the basic emphasis of strategic management. An operational decision is related with day-to-day operation of the organisation. Such decisions are taken at lower levels in the organisation.What is operational decision in one organisation may be a strategic decision in another organisation.Strategic decision can be defined as a major choice of actions concerning allocation of resources and contribution to the achievement of organisational objectives.

Characteristics:                                                                                            

Decision is a major one, which affects the whole or part;   Contributes directly towards the realisation of organisational objectives; Strategic decision may involve major departure from the earlier ones; Strategic decision is likely to include a wide range of available alternatives to cope up with environmental demands.          

 Elements of Strategic Decision       

            Strategic decision is a major choice of actions concerning allocation of resources and contribution to the achievement of organisational objectives directly. The following are the elements of a strategic decision;

1. Result element:                                                                                                     

 Organisations are goal directed and any organisational process should be goal directed to meet the organisational objectives. The value of a decision and the associated action is related with which the goal is achieved. The result element of strategic decision is a specifically defined objective or statement of desired future accomplishment, which will contribute to the company’s overall purpose.

  The result element of strategic decision must specify what specific result is to be achieved. It is quite common to express the result in quantitative terms such as sales volume, market share, and profit margin, expense reduction etc. It can also be expressed in the form of technological leadership, market leadership, profitability, social contribution, employment, strengthening the economy etc.

2. Action Element

            A stated result or objective does not become useful until it is accompanied with an action programme. Strategic decisions are action oriented and directed towards the controlling aspects of the environment. The action element specifies what work must be done and how to get the results.

3. Commitment element

            A decision is not strategic unless it has been translated into a set of actions whereby the organization’s resources are committed for a particular course of action. Commitment of resources includes the allocation of resources on various actions and since these resources are utilized for the actions concerned, these can be back in the form of their result. Decisions regarding who will be taking action are an important aspect of commitment element of strategic decision. The commitment decision should also specify where and under what circumstance implementation is to be effected.

Timing element is the most important element of commitment principle and development and implementation of strategy.

 

Dimensions of strategic decisions.

The Strategic issues have been identified into six dimensions. Strategic issues require top management decisions- top management involvement is imperative. There is perspective for understanding and anticipating broad implications and ramifications at this level.

            Allocation of large amounts of company resources are required for involve strategic issues. Strategic issues are likely to have a significant impact of the long termrosperity of the firm Strategic issues are future oriented –based on what managers anticipate or forecast rather on what they know. Strategic issues usually have major multifunctional or multi-business consequences- A strategic decision is co-ordinate. Strategic issues necessitate considering factors in the firm’s external environment.

Levels of Strategy

            In business organizations the decision-making hierarchy typically contains three levels. At the top is the corporate level, composed principally of members of the board of directors and the chief executive and administrative officers. They are responsible for the financial performance of the corporation as a whole for achieving the non-financial goals of the firm.

            The second rung of the decision-making hierarchy is the business level, composed principally of business and corporate managers. These managers must translate the general statements of direction and intent generated at the corporate level into concrete, functional objectives and strategies for individual business divisions of SBUs.

            The third rung is the functional level, composed principally of managers of products, geographic and functional areas. It is their responsibility to develop annual objectives and short term strategies in such areas as production, operations and research and development, finance, marketing and human relations. Companies, which are in only one business, are concentrated in a single group of directors and managers.

            Some of the companies, which have a corporate structure, comprise of three fully operative levels. The superstructure is provided at the corporate level, with the superstructure at the business level giving direction and support for functional level activities.

CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

DECISIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS

LEVEL OF STRATEGY

Characteristic

Corporate

Business

Functional

Type

Conceptual

Mixed

Operational

Measurability

Value judgements

Semiquantifiable

Quantifiable

Frequency

Periodic/Sporadic

Periodic/Sporadic

Periodic

Adaptability

Low

Medium

High

Relation to present activities

Innovative

Mixed

Supplementary

Risk

Wide range

Moderate

Low

Profit potential

Large

Medium

Small

Cost

Major

Medium

Modest

Time Horizon

Long range

Medium range

Short range

Flexibility

High

Medium

Low

Co-operation

Considerable

Moderate

Little

ITC’s CORPORATE STRATEGIES:

ITC is a board-managed professional company, committed to creating enduring value for the shareholder and for the nation. It has a rich organisational culture rooted in its core values of respect for people and belief in empowerment. Its philosophy of all-round value creation is backed by strong corporate governance policies and systems.

ITC’s corporate strategies are aimed at matching its core capabilities with market opportunities to produce superior shareholder value. The key corporate strategies are:

  • Continue to focus of the core businesses of Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Packaging and Paperboard.
  • Ensure that each of its businesses meets the three criteria of sustainability namely Market Standing, Profitability and Internal Vitality. Exit from businesses which do not meet these criteria with an agreed time frame.
  • Ensure that each business is internationally competitive in the Indian global market.
  • Create distributed leadership within the organisation by nrturing talented and focused top management teams for each of the businesses.
  • Institute and practice a system of corporate governance appropriate to ITC’s character and constitution. Such a system of governance must achieve a wholesome balance between the need for executive freedom for management and the requirement of a framework for effective accountability. 
  • Secure the future growth of the Company by creating new businesses which leverage the strength of its core competencies, residing in various businesses.

The Strategy Makers

            The ideal strategic management process is developed and governed by a strategic management team. The team consists principally of decision-makers at all three levels, the chief executive officer, the product managers and the heads of functional areas.

            The team relies on input from two types of support personnel: Company planning staff and lower level managers and supervisors. The latter provide data for strategic decision making and are responsible for implementing strategies.

            Strategic decisions have such a tremendous impact on a firm and because they require large commitments of company resources, top managers can only make them in the organizational hierarchy.

Benefits of Strategic Management

            The strategic management approach emphasises interaction by managers at all levels of the organizational hierarchy. As a result, strategic management has certain behavioural consequences.

  1. Strategy formulation activities should enhance the problem prevention capabilities of the firm.
  2. Group based strategic decisions are most likely to reflect the best available alternatives.
  3. Employee motivation should improve as employees better appreciate the productivity-reward relationships in every strategic plan.
  4. Gaps and overlaps in activities among diverse individuals and groups should be reduced.
  5. Resistance to change should be reduced.

Risks of Strategic Management

Managers must be trained to guard against three types of unintended negative consequences. Managers must be trained to schedule their duties to provide the necessary time for strategic activities while minimising any negative impact on organisational/ operational responsibilities.

If the formulators of strategy are not intimately involved in implementation, individual responsibility for input to the decision process and subsequent conclusions can be shirked. Strategic managers must be trained to anticipate, minimise or constructively respond when participating subordinates become disappointed or frustrated over unattained expectations.

Strategic Management Process

            The logic of management process is that particular functions are performed in a sequence through time. The term process refers to an identifiable flow of information through interrelated stages of analysis directed towards the achievement of an objective. Thus, strategic management as a process may involve a number of various elements of strategic management process and the way they interact among themselves. The process becomes quite complex in practice because of the type of interaction among these elements.

Corporate Mission and Objectives – Since organisations are deliberate creations, they have some specific mission towards which all efforts are directed. The mission of an organisation is the fundamental unique purpose that sets it apart from other organisations and identifies the scope of its operation in product and market terms. Corporate objectives are other factor, which determine the strategy. The choice of the objectives for an organization is a strategic decision because by choosing its objectives, the organization commits itself for these.

Environmental analysis – Since an organization is a social system, it operates within the environment which consists of many factors, such as, society, competitors, technology, legal framework, political framework, psychological and cultural framework. An organisation has to interact continuously with these factors.

Corporate analysis – Opportunities or threats posed by the environment and how the organisation can take advantages will depend greatly on the organisation’s strengths and weaknesses. Corporate analysis brings these strengths and weaknesses.

Identification of strategic alternatives – Interaction of organisation with its environment in the light of its strengths and weaknesses will result into various strategic alternatives. All alternatives cannot be chosen even if all of them produce the same results. Therefore, the strategic alternatives should be identified in the light of strategic threats and opportunities generated through environmental analysis, and organisational mission and objectives.

Choice of strategy – The identification of various strategic alternatives leads to the level when managers can consider some alternatives seriously. The chosen alternative should be acceptable in the light of organisational objectives. it is not necessary that the chosen alternative is the best one.

Implementation of strategy – The organisation tries to convert the strategy into something operationally effective. The strategy should be put to action because mere choice of the soundest strategy will not affect organisational activities and achievement of its objectives.

Review and control – Review and control may be treated as the last stage of strategic management process. This is an on-going process and review and control should be taken as the process for future course of action.

Summary

Strategic Management is the continuous process of relating the organisation with its environment by suitable course of action involving strategy formulation, its implementation and mobilising organisational resources for the purpose. Thus, strategic management involves the planning, directing, organising and controlling of the strategy related decisions and actions of the business.

The decision-making hierarchy of business firms contains three levels, at the top is the corporate level and in the second rung of the hierarchy is the business level and in the third rung is the functional level. For a new business or reformulating direction for an ongoing company, the basic goals, characteristics and philosophies that will shape a firm’s strategic posture must be determined. It is here that the company mission will guide future executive action. Strategic management process comprises of functions that are performed in a sequence through time.

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Can Netanyahu Survive This Latest Scandal?

According to a poll conducted this week by Israel Channel 2, a majority of the Israeli public believes Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is guilty of the crimes for which he is being investigated and do not believe his protestations of innocence. A smaller percentage, a slight plurality, think he should resign.

Opinion polls aside, Netanyahu continues to claim nothing will come of these investigations, and that he will remain prime minister for many years to come. Despite Netanyahu’s protests, the revelations over the last week shook even jaded Israelis.

For the past few years, many Israelis have felt there was something fundamentally wrong with their society, but they were never quite sure what. Many thought it was the conflict, or the occupation corrupting Israeli society.

Others have criticized and demonstrated against what  loosely translates into the interconnection of wealth and government. Questions swirled around government contracts, starting with the deal the government negotiated for the exploration of Israel’s recently discovered gas fields.

A few weeks ago, a scandal began developing, related to conflicts of interest in a decision to purchase submarines and other ships from Germany.

Related: Tel Aviv Diary: Bibi Beset By Scandals

During this past month, Israelis have found out that what they were led to believe was an ideological battle between the prime minister and some of his opponents was really just a fight over influence and money—i.e., Netanyahu wanting to better control the media, together with a struggling media company wanting to improve its bottom line.

The prime minister has been interrogated three times in the past 10 days about what is being called “Case 1000” and “Case 2000,” respectively.

In Case 1000, Netanyahu is accused of receiving thousands of dollars in gift from very wealthy acquaintances, in return for orchestrating certain favors on their behalf.

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Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the scene of a shooting outside Max Brenner restaurant in Sarona Market on June 8, 2016 in Tel Aviv, Israel. Marc Schulman writes that in and attempt to prove he did no wrong, Netanyahu admitted that two years ago he called for new elections solely to protect Yisrael Hayom, his backer (and Trump’s backer) Sheldon Adelson’s newspaper.


Lior Mizrahi/Getty


Case 2000, which was secret until recently, has turned out to be the above-referenced case, in which Netanyahu and Arnon “Noni” Mozes, publisher of Yediot Ahronot, were involved in negotiating a deal to provide more favorable coverage of the prime minister.

In a taped conversation, Mozes was even heard stating he would “make sure he (Netanyahu) remains prime minister.” In return, the prime minister was to make changes to the publication schedule of Yisrael Hayom owned by Netanyahu’s  (and Trump’s) backer Sheldon Adelson, changes that would be to financially advantageous to Yediot.

Proposed adjustments included discontinuing the Friday edition of Yisrael Hayom, thereby eliminating the major competition to Yediot Ahronot’s weekend circulation which is its prime source of income. It should be noted that under Israeli law a bribe does not have to be consummated; it is enough merely if it offered or agreed to.

All of the conversations between Netanyahu and Mozes were taped by the prime minister’s chief-of-staff. For the last week, details of the conversations have come out drip by drip, convincing many Israelis that what they had been previously led to believe about either of the participants was simply false.

In attempts to prove he did no wrong, Netanyahu admitted that two years ago he called for new elections solely to protect Yisrael Hayom, Adelson’s newspaper (otherwise known in Israel as “the Bibiton”—or Bibi’s newspaper.). That, he claims, proved that he did not enter any agreement with Mozes.  

While many Israeli had believed that that is what happened, Netanyahu has consistently and repeatedly stated he has no influence on the Yisrael Hayom newspaper and that was not the reason he called elections.

In addition to the prime minister, his wife Sarah, his son Yair and Yediot editor Noni Mozes, the editor of Yisrael Hayom, Sheldon Adelson and many others have been questioned during the course of this investigation (as well as throughout the course of the investigation of Case 1,000).

After the police complete their interrogations they will make their recommendations to Israel’s attorney-general on whether they think the prime minister should be indicted. That decision will then be up to the attorney-general.

If Netanyahu is indeed indicted, it is expected he will be forced to resign. Whether the investigations result in indictments or not, these most recent affairs have forever changed the way Israelis look at both the media and the prime minister.

Marc Schulman is the editor of Historycentral.com.

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The Benefits of Medical Marijuana for Cancer Patients

Due to being illegal or quasi-legal in many countries, you might not find as much information on the uses of medical marijuana (or marihuana) as you might expect. However, many studies have been conducted, and are still being conducted, about the medical uses of cannabis. Despite a somewhat blind governmental view in many countries, including Canada and the United States, these studies have shown repeatedly exactly how medical marijuana can help those suffering from severe illnesses such as cancer.

Traditional Cancer Treatments

Lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer – in fact, most types of cancer all start the same basic way. Something causes cancer cells to divide and grow without pause, spreading badly damaged DNA. Those cells invade other tissues and, in most cases, form tumors.

Cancer studies have taken leaps and bounds as far as finding treatments to slow, and sometimes stop, the spread of cancer. However, two of the most important treatments, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, also cause damage and, often, severe side effects.

For instance, some of the most powerful, toxic chemicals are used in chemotherapeutic agents. Both treatments kill cancer cells, but healthy cells as well. Chemotherapeutic agents such as Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and Platinol (cisplatin) can, and have, caused immune suppression and multiple organ damage, but they also cause severe nausea and vomiting.

The vomiting can last over a period of days, to the point that some patients have actually torn their esophagus. Due to the vomiting and lack of appetite, severe dehydration and weigh loss is normal. In fact, many cancer patients begin having a reaction before chemotherapy begins, in “anticipation” of the side effects. Unfortunately, although chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be an integral part of their survival, many cancer patients decide not to take the therapies because the side effects are so severe.

Because of this, many are given a mix of anti-nausea drugs. Often, the anti-nausea drugs work. However, the drugs only give partial symptom control, while for others they give no control at all. In addition, those who take traditional medications may also suffer fever, bone pain, fatigue, anxiety, sleep problems and changes in heart activity, among other issues. This leaves cancer patients to suffer from the effects of the cancer itself, the side effects of the treatments, and the side effects of medications used to alleviate the initial side effects of the treatments.

Medical Marijuana for Cancer Patients

It has proven in many studies, performed by prestigious scientific and medical organizations and individuals, that medical marijuana can (and does) relieve pain and nausea. In fact, some of these studies go as far back as the 1970s and older.

For instance, in 1975, the New England Journal of Medicine published the results of a “double-blind” study on the effects of oral (ingested rather than smoked) tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and vomiting. According to the study, “No patient vomited while experiencing a subjective “high”. Oral tetrahydrocannabinol has antiemetic properties and is significantly better than a placebo in reducing vomiting caused by chemotherapeutic agents.”

A 1999 report by the Institutes of Medicine concluded, “In patients already experiencing severe nausea or vomiting, pills are generally ineffective, because of the difficulty in swallowing or keeping a pill down, and slow onset of the drug effect. Thus an inhalation (but, preferably not smoking) cannabinoid drug delivery system would be advantageous for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea.”

Although freedom from nausea and vomiting are two of the most noticed benefits of medical marijuana use, many have reported a reduction in the severity of wasting away. As well, they’ve notice a lessening in depression and other “side effects” brought on by the disease, including an increase in appetite. All of these things together have helped many cancer patients live a better, happier, more comfortable life. However, studies have also shown a shocking benefit.

Over twenty major studies in the past nine years have shown that cannabinoids (the chemicals in cannabis) actually fight cancer cells. In fact, it’s been shown that cannabinoids arrest cancer growths of many different forms of cancer, including brain, melanoma and breast cancer. There’s even growing evidence that cannabinoids cause direct anti-tumor activity.

Since the possibility was first realized, many more studies have been conducted, focused on the possibility of cannabinoids have anticarcinogenic effects. A 2007 study by the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology in Rostock, Germany focused on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The cells were treated with specific cannabioids and THC. Even at low concentrations, MA and THC “led to a decrease in invasion of 61.5% and 68.1% respectively.”

The benefits of medical marijuana for cancer patients are clear when it comes to increased appetite, reduction of pain, wasting, vomiting and nausea, as well as depression. Although its anticarcinogenic effects aren’t quite as clear, ongoing research further points to the possibility that medical marijuana may actually be what many claim it is – a truly miraculous drug.